add angle-downbadge calendarcard check-circle-ocheck clockemail envelope-oexclamation-circleexternal-link-squareexternal-linkfacebook-squarefacebook fighting-extinction flag-checkeredgift green-check info-circleinstagram-squareinstagram linkedin lock logo-healesville-inverse Healesville Sanctuary logoCreated with Sketch. logo-melbourne-inverse Melbourne Zoo logoCreated with Sketch. logo-werribee-inverse Werribee Zoo logo CopyCreated with Sketch. logo-zv-icons logo-zv-inverse logo-zv mime-pdf minus-boulderminus-circlepencilphone pinterest plus-boulderplus-circleremove tick timestwitter-squaretwitter vic-gov youtube
Werribee Open Range Zoo

Scimitar-horned Oryx

These elegant, wary animals have long, thin, finely ridged horns that curve up over their backs; the name ‘scimitar’ comes from the curved swords used for centuries in Arabic countries.

Scimitar-horned Oryx were once widespread in North Africa but the species is now classed as Extinct in the Wild by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (on the IUCN ‘red list’).

There has been a long-term decline in numbers because of climate changes (excessive drought), uncontrolled hunting by people, agricultural encroachment on their habitat, and excessive grazing of limited vegetation by domestic livestock. 

There have not been any confirmed sightings of Scimitar-horned Oryx in the wild since 1988, although perhaps as many as 9,000 animals survive in zoos, safari parks, ranches and public holdings around the world, along with some small populations reintroduced to Tunisia and Morocco in fenced, protected areas.

Werribee Open Range Zoo is part of an international breeding program to help save this species from extinction.

Scimitar-horned Oryx usually live on arid plains and deserts, but in some areas they also inhabit rocky hillsides and thick brush.

Herds of more than 1,000 used to congregate in areas of fresh pasture, surface water after rainfall or during the wet season migrations.  Now, a typical herd has fewer than 20 members and has a tight social structure. 

Breeding males will hold a territory and aggressively defend it and their group of females. Solitary males will also sometimes maintain a territory in which they seek to control and mate with the females that are present.

Scimitar-horned Oryx are ruminants with a compartmentalised stomach that allows for more effective digestion of the food they eat. All ruminants re-chew their food, a behaviour known as ‘chewing the cud’.

They feed at night and during the cool of early morning when the dry desert plants, on which they live, have higher water content. Desert plants during the day contain only 1–2% water but absorb moisture during the night to increase their water content up to 40%. Oryx will browse on a wide range of grass species, leafy shrubs and fruits.


Born 2010

Zoo keepers describe Al-Maha as highly vigilant yet ready to make ‘sensible’ and measured decisions on behalf of the rest of the group to keep them safe. An older and wiser member of the Scimitar-horned Oryx group, Al-Maha is establishing herself as an emerging matriarch and protective leader.



Born 2011

A majestic looking antelope, Manyevu is the dominant male in our Scimitar-horned Oryx herd and has sired four offspring. Manyevu has played an important role in Werribee Open Range Zoo’s international breeding program that is working with organisations around the world to save the Scimitar-horned Oryx from extinction.

Young Oryx Calf

Meet our newest arrival

Werribee Open Range Zoo has welcomed a very special new arrival, a female Scimitar-horned Oryx calf born to mum Sheba and dad Manyevu on 4 October.

4 November 2016
Oryx Kebili

A special arrival at Werribee Open Range Zoo

Werribee Open Range Zoo has welcomed a very special new arrival, a male Scimitar-horned Oryx calf born on 3 March.

Keepers and Vets are delighted that the birth went so smoothly for first-time mum Mahdia.

Mahdia was born in June 2013 and had a tough start to life.

31 March 2015
Slumber Safari 2016 YouTube video

Slumber Safari

Enjoy an overnight experience at the Zoo in our luxury safari camp. Your stay includes amazing close-up animal encounters, drinks and dips at sunset, a sumptuous dinner, unique night-time activities and breakfast.

Open Vehicle Adventure YouTube video

Off Road Safari

Animal lovers of all ages will love to get even closer to our magnificent African wildlife on an off road safari. 

  • Scimitar-horned Oryx have an interesting way of coping with a shortage of water. They are able to raise their body temperature by several degrees, up to 46.6 degrees C, to conserve water by avoiding sweating
  • Egyptians used to bind the horns of oryx together to make them appear like they had one horn. Soon their horns would grow together. This may be where the unicorn myths began
  • Reintroduction of oryx in some areas is problematic because they are migratory animals, and move to vast pastures. Unfortunately, livestock or crops now occupy most pastures
  • There may be considerable competition between males, but it involves mainly ritualised, horn-to-horn sparring, with no serious injuries
  • Courtship between oryx can be quite aggressive. Inter-male fighting differs from male-female fighting in that the partners stand farther apart and their heads are stretched up. The male and female in courtship stand close together with heads low.  If the female does not wish to mate she tries to ‘defeat’ the male in this sparring, if she breaks free the male pursues her
  • Flight is always the first defence, but failing this, the oryx will spin and face the predator
  • They defend themselves by lowering the head, so that the sharp horns point forward